|Gatha||Sentence Translation||Sentence Structure|
In this world, does there exist a person restrained by
who avoids blame, like a good horse avoids a whip?
puriso koci lokasmij
| | | | | |
N.f. Adj.m. N.m. Pron.m. N.m. V.pas.in.
| Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg. Loc.Sg. 3.Sg.pres.
|______| | | |________|
|__________| | |
List of Abbreviations
asso bhadro kasam
| | | | | | |
Rel.Pron.m. N.f. V.act.caus. N.m. Adj.m. N.f. part.
Nom.Sg. Acc.Sg. 3.Sg.pres. Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg. Acc.Sg. |
| |_______| |_______| | |
|________________| |___________| |
hirinisedha-, Adj.: restrained by conscience.
It is a compound of:
hiri-, N.f.: sense of shame, conscience.
nisedha-, Adj.: restraining, holding back.
Nom.Sg.m. = hirinisedho.
puriso: purisa-, N.m.: person. Nom.Sg. = puriso.
koci: kibci-, Pron.: whatever. Nom.Sg.m. = koci.
lokasmij: loka-, N.m.: world. Loc.Sg. = lokasmij.
vijjati, V.: exists, is found. The verb root is vid- (to find). 3.Sg.pas.in.pres. = vijjati.
List of Abbreviations
yo: yad-, Rel.Pron.: that which. Nom.Sg.m. = yo.
nindaj: ninda-, N.f.: blame, reproach. Acc.Sg. = nindaj.
apabodheti, V.: avoids. It is a causative of the verb root budh- (to understand) with the prefix apa- (away). 3.Sg.act.caus.pres. = apabodheti.
asso: assa-, N.m.: horse. Nom.Sg. = asso.
bhadro: bhadra-, Adj.: good. Nom.Sg.m. = bhadro.
kasam: kasa-, N.f.: whip. Acc.Sg. = kasam.
iva, part.: like, as (another, more often used form of this word is va).
List of Abbreviations
This verse consists of two related
sentences. They are:
1) hirinisedho puriso koci lokasmij vijjati (in this world, does there exist a person restrained by conscience). The subject is the noun puriso (person, nominative singular). It has two attributes, the adjective compound hirinisedho (restrained by conscience, nominative singular) and the pronoun koci (a, some; nominative singular). The verb is vijjati (is found, exists; 3rd person, singular, passive, indicative, present tense). It has an attribute, the noun lokasmij (in the world, locative singular).
2) yo nindaj apabodheti asso bhadro kasam iva (who avoids blame, like a good horse avoids a whip). This sentence contains two parts. The main sentence is yo nindaj apabodheti (who avoids blame). The subject is the relative pronoun yo (who, nominative singular). The verb is apabodheti (avoids, 3rd person, singular, active, causative, present tense). The object is the noun nindaj (blame, accusative singular). The second part is the clause asso bhadro kasam iva (like a good horse [avoids] a whip). The subject is the noun asso (horse, nominative singular). It has an attribute, the adjective bhadro (good, nominative singular). The verb is omitted, implying the verb apabodheti from the main sentence. The object is the noun kasam (whip, accusative singular). The particle iva (like) connects the clause to the main sentence.
once met a young beggar who was going around dressed in old rags and holding
a begging plate. After meeting Ananda, the
man decided to become a monk. His name was Pilotika.
When he became a monk, he put his old clothes and the plate under a certain tree. Sometimes he felt not satisfied with his life as a monk and he went back to the tree and contemplated going back to the layman's life. But when he realized how miserable were his days before he became a monk, he felt shame and returned to the monastery.
This happened many times. Other monks asked him where was he going all the time. He told them he went to see his teacher. Pilotika considered his old clothes and the plate to be his teacher, because they taught him futility of the lay life many times. He started to practice earnestly and took his old clothes as a meditation subject. Soon he was able to reach Awakenment and therefore he stopped going to the tree.
Other monks asked him again, why does not he go to see his teacher any more. Pilotika replied that he does not have need for a teacher any more, hinting that he was an Arahant. The monks went to see the Buddha and asked him if it was true, if Pilotika has really reached the goal. The Buddha replied in affirmative, saying that indeed Pilotika now has no need to see his "teacher" because he has nothing to learn from the old clothes anymore. He has realized the truth and became an Arahant. The Buddha further added this verse and the following one (DhP 144).